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Self-Related Differences in Future Time Orientations

E. Olcay İmamoğlu, Ayça Güler-Edwards
2007; 22(60):115-132

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The aim of the present study was to explore patterns in Turkish university students' orientations toward the future, and to investigate how those orientations differed according to their self-types, as suggested by the Balanced Integration and Differentiation (BID) Model (İmamoğlu, 1995; 1998; 2003). Accordingly, Attitudes toward the Future Scale, developed for the present purposes, Positive Future Expectations Scale (İmamoğlu, 2001), Future Time Orientation Scale (Gjesme, 1979), and the BID Scale (İmamoğlu, 1998; 2003) were administered to 295 Turkish university students (170 women, 125 men), who participated in the study. Comparisons of the data from the scales used suggested that it was meaningful to conceptualize the participants' future orientations as Positive, Anxious, and Planned. In terms of self-related differences, respondents with related-individuated and separated-patterned self-types, proposed by the BID Model to represent the most balanced and unbalanced self-types, respectively, significantly differed from each other in that the former group seemed to have a more favorable outlook toward the future. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed in the framework of future attitudes and the BID Model.

Keywords: Time-related orientations, attitude toward future scale, future time orientation scale, positive future expectations scale, balanced integration differentiation model, self-construals