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Planning Ability of Adults: Standardization and Reliability of TOLDX

Deniz Atalay, Sevtap Cinan
2007; 22(60):25-38

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Results of a normative and reliability study on the Tower of London-Drexel (TOLDX), a test of planning, are reported for a sample of 385 Turkish adults from fi ve age groups: 16-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-59, and 60+ age groups. The study examined the inş uence of age, gender, and education on the test performance. Mean performance and percentile ranks are presented for the fi ve age groups. The results showed a signifi cant age effect, which was mainly due to the 60+ age group's performance. The performance of 60+ age group was signifi cantly poorer than those of the other four groups. There were no major changes in performance from 16 to 59 years-old. The study also revealed that there were essentially no differences between females and males in all the TOL scores, except for the Total Rule Violations and the Total Execution Time. Education level had a marked inş uence on the TOLDX performance. Overall the high education group's performance was better than the middle and the low education groups. The TOLDX also demonstrated good test-retest reliability coefficients, ranging from a low of .45 to a high of .74.

Keywords: Tower of London (TOLDX) test, executive functions, planning, standardization and reliability studies